On March 11, 1990, Lithuania declared its independence. The Soviet Union reacted by threatening economic sanctions. Lithuania needed support. Its hopes were directed at the West, and particularly at France. How did France react? What was its foreign policy regarding the “Baltic question”, that is, the demands of the Baltic States for the restoration of their sovereignty, which they had lost in their forced annexation by the Soviet Union in 1940?
Professor emeritus of political science at the University of Erlangen. Visiting professor in Lisbon, Perpignan, Paris, Rennes, Salerno, and Naples. 1995–1996 Secretary General of the International Council for Philosophy and Human Sciences (UNESCO). Honorary doctorates from the Universities of Perpignan and Rennes. In 2005 received the German-French Parliamentary Prize. Among recent books: Wie Weltgeschichte gemacht wird: Frankreich und die deutsche Einheit (2002) and 40 (2009).